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Leaders of Renaissance in Kerala – Mannath Padmanabhan (1878-1970)

1. Mannathu Padmanabhan was born in Perunna village in Changanassery,
Travancore on 2nd January 1878 to Eswaran Namboothiri of Nilavana Illam and Mannathu Parvathy Amma.

2. He began his career as a teacher in 1893 in a Government primary school. After a few years, from 1905 he changed his profession and started practising law, in the Magistrates Courts.

3. On 31st October 1914 with the help of a few others, Mannathu Padmanathan established the Nair Service Society.

4. The headquarters of N.S.S. is Perunna. Earlier, the name of the organisation was ‘Nair Bhrithyajana Sangham’.

5. N.S.S. was established in the lines of the Servants of India Society of Gopalakrishna Gokhale.

6. N.S.S. started its first school at Karukachal in Kottayam district. Its first headmaster was K.Kelappan.

7. The first college of NSS was established at Perunna in 1947 and T.K.Narayana Iyer was the principal.

8. The publication ‘Service’ was started in 1919 from Karukachal as the mouthpiece of N.S.S.

9. It helped for the abolition of sub-castes among Nair community. It also succeeded in gathering favourable support for ‘Nair Regulation’ (1925).

10. The basic unit of N.S.S. is ‘Karayogam’ and the first Karayogam was established at a place named Thattayil (1929).

11. The first president of Nair Service Society was K.Kelappan. Mannath Padmanabhan was the first secretary and Panangattu Kesavappanicker was the first treasurer of N.S.S.

12. The name Nair Bhrithya Jana Sangham was suggested by K.Kannan Nair and Nair Service Society was suggested by K.Paramu Pillai (He was a School Inspector).

13. Panthalam K.P.Raman Pillai wrote ‘Akhilandamandalam aniyichorukki….” .

14. Sardar K.M.Panicker called Mannath Padmanabhan ‘Madan Mohan Malavya of Kerala’?

15. Sardar K.M.Panicker called Pazhassi Raja ‘Kerala Simham’.

16. Mannam decided to establish educational institutions for the members of his community when he felt that it was difficult to get admission in the institutions run by others.

17. During the Vaikom Satyagraha, Mannath Padmanabhan started ‘Savarna Jatha’ from Vaikom.

18. Another Savarna Jatha was started from Nagercoil under the leadership of Dr.Perumal Naidu.

19. Both the Jathas met at Thiruvananthapuram. A deputation led by Congress leader Changanassery Parameswaran Pillai submitted a huge memorandum before the regent queen Sethulakshmi Bhai.

20. The idea of Savarna Jatha was suggested by Mahatma Gandhi.

21. Mannath Padmanabhan was the president of the Guruvayoor Sathyagraha Committee?

22. Guruvayoor Sathyagraha was started in 1931. K.Kelappan was the Secretary of the Guruvayur Satyagraha Committee.

23. Volunteer Captain was A.K.Gopalan.

24. Mannam believed that the welfare and progress of Nair community is connected to the total prosperity of the Hindu religion. So he cooperated with the attempts to root out the factors that were detrimental to the progress of Hinduism. Thus Mannam actively participated in Vaikom and Guruvayur
Sathyagrahas.

25. Mannam was always interested to involve actively in the contemporary social issues. As a part of some temple rituals, the women of that era had to remove their upper cloths during festival occasions. In this background, in 1931 Mannam exhorted the women of Kerala to boycott the temples.

26. Mannath Padmanabhan married Mechet Kalyani Amma in 1901. She passed away in 1912 and was survived by a daughter.

27. In 1932 Mannath Padmanabhan married Thottakkat Madhavi Amma.

28. Thottakkat Madhavi Amma was the first woman to become a member of the Legislature of Cochin (1925). She was also a famous writer. Her mother Thottakkad Ikkavamma was also popular as a poetess.

29. In association with R.Shankar Mannath Padmanabhan founded ‘Hindumahamandalam’

30. R.Shankar was the leader of SNDP Yogam and Congress. The political party launched by R.Shankar and Mannam was Democratic Congress Party (1950).

31. The political party launched by N.S.S. was National Democratic Party.

32. The famous ‘Muthukulam speech’ of Mannam was in 1947.

33. In 1949 Mannam became the first president of Travancore Dewaswam Board (19491950).

34. The Liberation Struggle (Vimochana Samaram) of 1959 was launched against the policies of EMS ministry especially the Educational Act introduced by Joseph Mundassery, the Minister for Education.

35. Political parties such as Congress, PSP, Muslim League, RSP joined together with some communal organisations, which were provoked by the provisions of the Educational Act.

315. The Congress president during liberation struggle was R.Shankar. The leader of the opposition was P.T.Chacko.

36. The name ‘ Vimochana Samaram’ was sprouted from a speech of Panampilly Govindamenon, Congress leader.

37. Liberation struggle was started on 12th June 1959. It lasted for seven weeks.

38. During Vimochana Samaram, the “Jeevasikha Jatha’ started from Angamali was led by Mannath Padmanabhan.

39. The president dismissed EMS ministry by invoking Article 356 of the Constitution on 31st July 1959.

40. It was the first occasion in the history of Independent India in which a government that enjoys a majority in the legislature was dismissed by invoking Article 356.

41. Kerala was the fifth state in Independent India that was brought under President’s rule (After Punjab, PEPSU, Andhra and Thiru Kochi).

42. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the then President of India presented the honour ‘Bharat Kesari’ to Mannath Padmanabhan in 1959.

43. The venue was Thirunakkara Maidan in Kottayam.

44. Mannam went for European expedition in 1959.

45. In 1966 Mannam was given ‘Padmavibhushan’.

46. He passed away on 25th February 1970. Mannam Samadhi is in Perunna. The autobiography of Mannath Padmanabhan is ‘Ente Jeevithasmaranakal’