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Assistant General Science

Chemistry – 02

മൂലകങ്ങൾ, മോളിക്യൂൾ, സംയുക്തം, മിശ്രിതം തുടങ്ങിയ ഭാഗങ്ങളാണ് ഇന്നത്തെ പാഠത്തിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തിയിരിക്കുന്നത്.

  • Smallest particle of substance having all its properties

   Molecules

 

  • The term ‘Molecule’ was coined by

     Avogadro

 

  • No of molecules contained in 1 mole of gas is called

       Avogadro number

 

  • Avogadro number is

       6.03×1023

 

  • International Mole day

 October 23

 

  • Kinetic Energy of molecules is maximum in

       Gases

 

  • Names given to the shells where electrons located around the nucleus

K, L, M, N, O, P and Q

 

  • Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom which determines its chemical property is called

Valance electrons (Valance Shell)

 

  • Subshells of electron shells are named as

     s, p, d, f and g

 

  • Maximum number of electrons in each subshell are

   s: 2, p: 6, d: 10, f: 14 and g: 18

 

  • Substances which composed of similar kind of atoms is called

     Element

 

  • The term element was coined by

 Robert Boyle

 

  • The scientist who first gave definition to the term ‘element’

       Robert Boyle

 

  • The scientist who gave symbols for elements on the basis of their names

           Berzelius

 

  • The scientist who classified elements into metals and non-metals

   Lavoisier

 

  • Elements are classified into

Metals, non-metals and metalloids

 

  • Elements that conduct electricity, heat and which tend to lose electrons to form positive ions

         Metals

 

  • Elements that do not conduct electricity, heat and which tend to accept electrons to form negative ions

           Non-Metals

 

  • Elements showing properties of both metals and non-metals

     Metalloids

 

  • International association which gives names of Elements

 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)

 

  • Substances composed of atoms of 2 or more elements combined in a definite proportion by weight is known as

   Compound

 

  • Substances composed of atoms of 2 or more compounds or elements combined in any proportion by weight is known as

     Mixture

 

  • Element which forms the largest number of compounds

     Carbon

 

  • Second element which forms the largest number of compounds

 Hydrogen

 

  • Atoms of same element having same atomic number and different mass number are known as

 Isotopes

 

  • Isotopes of Hydrogen are

       Protium, Deuterium, Tritium

 

  • Isotopes are discovered by

Frederick Soddy

 

  • Isotope which is used to determine the age of fossils (Carbon dating)

 Carbon 14

 

  • Isotope which is used for the treatment of cancer

Cobalt 60

 

  • Isotope which is used for the treatment of skin cancer

     Phosphorous 32

 

  • Isotopes which are used as medicines

     Oxygen 15, Iodine 131

 

  • Atoms of different elements having same mass number and different atomic number

       Isobars

 

  • Atoms of elements having the same number of Neutrons

 Isotones

 

  • Compounds with same molecular formula and different structure are known as

   Isomers

 

  • Different forms of the same element with different physical appearances

         Allotropes

 

  • Example of an allotrope

         Diamond, Graphite and Charcoal are allotropes of Carbon

 

  • Allotrope of Oxygen

 Ozone

 

  • Fructose is an isomer of

   Glucose


                                                                                                          (To be Continued…)