civil Renaissance


    • Ayyankali was a social reformer who worked for the advancement of the lower caste Dalits known as the Untouchables.


    • He pioneered many reforms to improve the lives of the Dalits.


    • Ayyankali was born in 1863 in Venganoor, Trivandrum.


    • He was one of seven children born to Ayyan and Mala, members of Pulaya community. He was illiterate as were all Dalits at that time.


    • In those days Dalits were not allowed to walk along public roads. The Dalit women were not allowed to cover their breasts in public places.


    • Ayyankali organized Dalits and fought against these discriminations.


    • He passed through the public roads of Venganoor (1893) on a bullock cart which was not allowed for the Dalits. Enraged by his boldness, the upper castes physically attacked him.


    • Ayyankali demanded right for Dalit children to study in school, which was not granted.


    • Ayyankali opened a school to teach the children belonging to Dalit families at Venganoor which was set ablaze by upper caste people.


    • In response to this, in 1907 he led a strike of agricultural laborers at Venganoor which lasted for more than a year.


    • He called for a boycott of agricultural work raising certain demands. His demands included (a) stoppage of the practice of not giving tea in tea shops to Dalits who were given tea till then in coconut shells; (b) right to education for the Dalit children; (c) resting time for workers during work hours; and (d) replacement of the system of wages in kind by payment of cash.


    • Initially, the landlords did not take it seriously. They tried many means and methods to defeat the workers. But, at last, they were forced to concede the demands of Ayyankali and his supporters.


    • In 1907 Ayyankali established Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham (SJPS) which campaigned for access to schools and raised funds to set up Pulayar-operated schools in the interim.


    • Ayyankali was later nominated to the Sri Moolam Legislative Assembly, in 1910 by the then rulers in recognition of his leadership ability.


    • He was the first member of the Dalit community to become a member of Sri Moolam Legislative Assembly.


    • In 1913 Ayyankali launched ‘Sadhujana Paripalini’ as the mouthpiece of Sadhujana Paripalana Sangham.


    • The first editor of the journal was Chempunthara Kalichothi Karuppan.


    • An attempt by Ayyankali to enroll a Pulayar girl in a government school led to violent acts perpetrated by upper castes against the community and eventually to the burning down of the school building in the village of Ooruttambalam. It is known as ‘Ooruttambalam Lahala’ or ‘Thonnootonpathamand Lahala’. It was staged in 1915 (1099 of Kollam Era).


    • By 1900 Dalits were given the freedom to walk on the public roads, and by 1914, Dalit children were allowed to join schools.


    • Also, Dalit women were allowed to cover their nakedness in public through his efforts.


    • In 1937 he was praised by Mahatma Gandhi in a meeting at Venganur, hometown of Ayyankali when Gandhiji visited Travancore in connection with the Temple Entry Proclamation.


    • Ayyankali passed away on 18th June, 1941.


    • In November 1980, Indira Gandhi unveiled a statue of Ayyankali at Kowdiar square in Thiruvananthapuram.


  • The headquarters of the Scheduled Caste Development Department is named after AyyanKali.

Important Questions on Ayyankali

1. Ayyankali was born on – 28th August 1863
2. The place where Ayyankali was born – Venganoor(Thiruvananthapuram)
3. Ayyankali’s house name – Plavathara Veedu
4. Ayyankali’s Father’s name is – Ayyan
5. Ayyankali’s Mother’s name is – Mala
6. Wife’s name is – Chellamma
7. Ayyankali’s childhood name was – Kali
8. Who is known as the father of Modern Dalit – Ayyankali
9. Who is known as Pulayaraja – Ayyankali
10. The title Pulaya Raja given by – Gandhiji
11. The founder of Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangam – Ayyankali
12. The journal of Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangam – Sadhujana paripalini 
13.The first editor of Sadhujana paropalini – Chempamthara Kalichothi Karuppan 
14. The year which the name of Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangam was changed into Pulaya Mahasabha – 1938
14. Ayyankali started Kudipallikodam at – Venganoor (1905)
15. The year which Ayyankali met Sree Narayana Guru in – 1912 (Balaramapuram)
16. The founder of Kochi Pulayasabha – Ayyankali
17. The leader of Villuvandi Samaram(1893) – Ayyankali
18. Villuvandi Samaram begin and end in – Venganoor to Thiruvananthapuram
19. The leader of Thonooramand Samaram(1915) – Ayyankali
20. Thonooramand Samaram is also known as – Ooruttambalam revolt 
21. The leader of Kallumala Samaram – Ayyankali
22. Kallumala Samaram took place in – Kollam(1915)
23.Kallumala Samaram also known as – Perinadu Lahala
24. First Dalit person become the member of Sree Moolam Prajasabha – Ayyankali
25. Ayyankali died on- 18th June 1941
26. Ayyankali’s tomb is known as – Panjajanyam (Chithrakoodam) 
27. The headquarters of Kerala SC and ST Development Corporation is situated in – Thrissur (Ayyankali Bhavan)
28. Who called Ayyankali as the Great Son of India – Indira Gandhi 
29. The statue of Ayyankali situated at – Kawadiar square (Thiruvananthapuram) 
30. Who unveiled the statue of Ayyankali at Kawadiar square – Indira Gandhi
31. The Architect of the statue of Ayyankali – Ezra David 
32. The year which Kerala Government started Ayyankali Urban Employment Guarantee Scheme – 2010 
33. The year which Indian Postal Department published postage stamp in the memory of Ayyankali – 12th August 2002 
34. Which University sets up a chair in the name of Ayyankali- Central University in Kasargod 
35. The Prime Minister who attended the 152nd birth anniversary of Ayyankali – Narendra Modi

civil Renaissance

Dr. Palpu

    • Dr. Palpu (Padmanabhan Palpu)was born on 2nd November 1863 at Pettah in Thiruvananthapuram.


    • Dr. Palpu was a relentless fighter for the cause of the Ezhavas in Kerala.


    • Sarojini Naidu praised him one of the greatest revolutionaries in India.


    • He was the founder of ‘Travancore Ezhava Sabha’.


    • It was the efforts of Dr Palpu marked the beginning of the long drawn out struggle to be waged by the backward classes within the Hindu community in Travancore for securing social equality and justice.


    • He was the first medical graduate from Ezhava community in Travancore.


    • As there was no opportunity for him to serve in Travancore government service, he joined the medical service of the neighboring state of Mysore.


    • Dr.Palpu was the third signatory in the Malayali Memorial (1891), a mass petition signed by 10038 persons submitted before Sree Mulam Tirunal, the King of Travancore which marked the beginning of the united social effort in the state to press the demands of the backward classes.


    • On the initiative of Dr.Palpu, a mass memorial signed by 13176 members of Ezhava community was presented to Sree Mulam Tirunal on 3rd September 1896. This document known as Ezhava memorial of 1896 demanded that the Ezhavas should be made beneficiaries of all those rights and privileges which were being enjoyed by their brethren who had become converts to Christianity.


    • The Government’s reply to the Ezhava memorial was too equally frustrating and reactionary in tone and content.


    • Disappointed by the attitude of the Government of Travancore, another memorial was submitted before Lord Curzon, the Viceroy when he visited Travancore. This is known as Ezhava Memorial of 1900.


    • This also was not considered favorably. Thus the Ezhava memorials failed to produce any tangible result.


    • Dr. Palpu took initiative to establish Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam in 1903.


    • It was the advice given by Swami Vivekananda to associate with some spiritual person in his effort to fight for the rights of the Ezhavas that drew him to Sri Narayana Guru.


    • Dr.Palpu spent the major share of his income for the activities of SNDP Yogam.


    • He called Kumaranasan as ‘Chinna Swami’.(‘Periya Swami’ was Narayana Guru)


  • He passed away on 25th January, 1950.


  • Dr. Nataraja Guru, who founded Sree Narayana Gurukulam for the propagation of the ideals of Sri Narayana Guru was the son of Dr. Palpu.

Important Questions on Dr. Palpu

1. Dr.Palpu was born on – 2 November 1863
2. Born at – Pettah (Thiruvananthapuram)
3. House Name – Nedugottu Veedu
4. Father – Padmanabhan
5. Mother – Matha Perumal
6. Wife – Bhagavathi Amma
7. First Guru – Pettayil Ramanpillai Assan
8. The first Graduate from Ezhava Community in Travancore- Velayudhan (Brother of Dr. Palpu)
9. The first Medical Graduate from Ezhava Community in Travancore – Dr.Palpu
10. Malayali Memorial was submitted in – 1891
11. Leader of Malayali Memorial – Barrister G.P.Pillai
12. Other important leaders of Malayali Memorial – K.P.Sankaramenon and Dr.Palpu
13. The Founder of Ezhava Maha Sabha (Greater Ezhava Association) – Dr.Palpu (1896)
14. The first meeting of Ezhava Maha Sabha (Greater Ezhava Association) was held at – Thiruvananthapuram
15. The leader of Ezhava Memorial – Dr.Palpu
16. The number of people who signed in Ezhava Memorial – 13176
17. Ezhava Memorial was submitted to – Sree Moolam Thirunal
18. Ezhava Memorial was submitted on – 3 September 1896
19. The leader of Second Ezhava Memorial – Dr.Palpu
20. Second Ezhava Memorial was submitted in – 1900
21. Second Ezhava Memorial was submitted to – Lord Curzon
22. The book “Treatment of Thiyyas in Travancore” was written by – Dr.Palpu
23. The Article “Thiruvithamkotte Theeyan” was written by – Dr.Palpu (In Madras Mail Daily)
24. Dr.Palpu met Swami Vivekananda in – 1882 (Mysore)
25. Dr.Palpu met Sreenarayana Guru in – 1895 (Bengaluru)
26. The founder of Malabar Economic Union – Dr.Palpu
27. Dr.palpu called Sreenarayana Guru as – Periya Swami
28. Dr.palpu called Kumaran Asan as – Chinna Swami
29. Who is known as “Political Father of the Ezhavas” – Dr.Palpu
30. Who describes him as the “Political Father of the Ezhavas” – Ritty Lukose
31. Dr.Palpu was died on – 25 January 1950
32. The founder of Sree Narayana Gurukulam (situated in Nilgiris) – Dr.Nataraja Guru (Son of Dr.Palpu)
33. The book “Dr.Palpu” was written by – Velayudhan Panilasherri
34. The book “Dr.Palpu Dharmabodhathil Jeevicha Karmayogi” was written by – M.K.Sanu
35. The book Dr.Palpu was written by – T.K.Madhavan
36. The winner of first Dr.Palpu Memorial Award 2012 – Dr. M.R.Rajagopal
37. The winner of Dr.Palpu Memorial Award 2013 – M.K.Sanu
38. The winner of Dr.Palpu Memorial Award 2014 – V.M.Sudheeran

civil Renaissance

V. T. Bhattathiripad

    • Bhattathiripad was born on March 26, 1896 to Thuppan Bhattathiripadand Sridevi Andarjanam on the banks of river Nila in south Malabar.


    • Vellithuruthi Thazhathu Karutha Patteri Raman Bhattathiripad(1896-1982), popularly known as V. T. Bhattathiripad or simply V. T.


    • He was an Indian social critic, well-known dramatist and a prominent freedom fighter who was a key figure in removing casteism and conservatism that existed in the Namboothiri community.


    • He belonged to the family of Agnihotri on his father’s side and had the lineage of Adi Sankara on his mother’s side.


    • He encouraged widow marriage in the Brahmin society and tried to reform the conservative practices of the “Namboodiri community”.


    • He conducted the first mixed-race marriage in the Brahmin society.


    • In 1930 V. T. Bhattathiripad wrote his play Adukkalayil Ninnu Arangathekku the first play in Malayalam to have a definite and concrete social objective.


    • The V. T. Bhattathiripad College in Sreekrishnapuram, Palakkad district, is named after him.


  • He Died on February 12, 1982 at the age of 85.

Important Questions on V.T. Bhattathiripad

1. Full Name of V.T. Bhattathiripad – Vellithiruthi Thazhattu Karutha Patteri Raman Bhattatiripad
2. Born on –  26 March 1896
3. Born at – Mezhathur
4. Father –  Thuppan Bhattathiripad
5. Mother – Sreedevi Andarjanam
6. Who Propagated Mixed Caste Marriage in Brahmin Society – V.T. Bhattathiripad
7. V.T. Bhattathiripad was one of the prominent members of – Yogakshema Sabha
8. Yogakshema Sabha was founded on – 1908 (Aluva)
9. First President of Yogakshema Sabha – Deshamangalathu Sankaran Namboothiripad
10. The mouthpiece of Yogakshema Sabha – Mangalodhayam
11. The Slogan of Yogakshema Sabha –  Make Namboothiries into Human beings
12. Founder of Namboothiri Yuvajana Sangam (1919) – V.T. Bhattathiripad
13. The mouthpiece of Namboothiri Yuvajana Sangam – Unni Namboothiri
14. The drama “Adukkalayil Ninnum Arangathekku” was written by – V.T. Bhattathiripad
15. The drama “Adukkalayil Ninnum Arangathekku” was first performed at – Edakkunni (1929)
16. The leader of Yajana Yathra – V.T. Bhattathiripad
17. Yajana Yathra was conducted on –  26 April 1931
18. Yajana Yathra was conducted from – Thrissur to Chandragiripuzha (Kasaragod)
Aim –  Education of the Poor Children
19. Autobiography of V.T. Bhattathiripad – Kannerum Kinavum
20. The winner of Kerala Sahithya Academy Award in 1972 – V.T. Bhattathiripad
21. Died on – 12 February 1982
22. Major Works of V.T. Bhattathiripad
a. Kannerum Kinavum
b. Adukkalayil Ninnum Arangathekku
c. Rajani Rangam
d. Karmavipakam
e. Vedivettom
f. Karinchantha
g. Pozhinjapookal
h. Chakravalangal
i. Satyamennathu Ivida Manushyanakunnu

23. Winner of V.T. Memorial Award 20ll – Akkitham Achuthan Namboothiripad
24. Winner of V.T. Memorial Award 2012 – Dr. K.Srikumar
25. The V.T. Bhattathiripad College is situated in –  Sreekrishnapuram (Palakkad)

civil Renaissance

Kuriakose Elias Chavara

    • Kuriakose Elias Chavara is called the father of literacy in Kerala.
    • He was the first to establish a printing press in Kerala without foreign support.
    • It was started at Mannanam in Kottayam. Deepika, the oldest daily in Kerala was printed for the first time in this press (1887).
    • He was the co-founder and first Prior General of the first congregation for men in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, and of a similar one for women, the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel.
    • He was born on 10th February 1805, at Kainakary in Alapuzha, the son of Iko (Kuriakose) Chavara and Mariam Thoppil.
    • He was baptized on February 17, 1805, at Chennamkary Parish Church in Alappuzha.
    • In his childhood, he attended the village school. There he studied language and elementary sciences.
    • He entered the seminary in 1818 in Pallipuram where Father Thoma Palackal was the Rector. He was ordained on November 29, 1829, at Arthunkal and presided over the Holy Qurbana (Eucharist) for the first time at Chennamkary Church.
    • Desirous of living in a religious community, Chavara joined with two other priests, Fathers Thoma Palackal and Thomas Porukara, in order to live in a community following Carmelite spirituality.
    • The name of the community was the Servants of Mary Immaculate of Mount Carmel. The foundation for the first monastery at Mannanam was laid on May 11, 1831, and the trio took vows to form a religious community.
    • Chavara took the additional name of “Elias”, from the Carmelite tradition of his having been their founder. Palackal and Porukara died in 1841 and 1846, respectively.
    • Chavara became Vicar General for the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in 1861.
    • He defended the ecclesial unity of the Church, which was threatened by schism due to the consecration by Thomas Rochus of Nestorian bishops.
    • He worked to renew the faith in the church. He was a man of prayer with a devotion to the Eucharist and the Virgin Mary.
    • He was also a social reformer, an educationist and had played a major and significant role in educating women and people of lower sections of society.
    • He first introduced the system called “A school along with every church” which was successful in making education and knowledge available for everyone for free. Thus schools in Kerala are also called ‘pallikudam’(‘palli’ means church).
    • Chavara, in collaboration with Father Leopold Beccaro, O.C.D., founded the first native religious congregation for women in India, the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel (C.M.C.), in 1866.
    • Chavara died on 3rd January 1871, aged 65, at Koonammavu, of natural causes.
  • Kuriakose Elias Chavara was canonized by Pope Francis in 2014 November.

Important Question on Kuriakose Elias Chavara

1. Who is known as “Father of literacy in Kerala” ? – Kuriakose Elias Chavara
2. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was born on ? – 10 February 1805
3. The place where Kuriakose Elias Chavara was born at ? – Kainakary (Alappuzha)
4. Father name ? – Iko Kuriakose
5. Mother name ? – Mariyam Thoppil
6. The year which Kuriakose Elias Chavara become Priest at Arthunkal (Alappuzha) ? –1829
7. The founders of CMI(Carmelite of Mary Immaculate) ? – Kuriakose Elias Chavara, Malpan Thomas Porukara, Malpan Thomas Palackal
8. The year which CMI started in ? – 1831 at Mannanam (Kottayam)
9. India’s first Christian Sanyasi Sabha ? – CMI
10. First Seminary started by Kuriakose Elias Chavara is at ? – Mannanam
11. The Year which Deepika printed from Mannanam press ? – 1887
12. Kuriakose Elias Chavara Started a Printing press at ? – Mannanam
13. First first book printed by Mannanam press ? – Jnanapeeyusham
14. The oldest daily in Kerala Deepika(1887) first time printed from ? – Mannanam press
15. First Catholic Sanskrit School Started in ? – Mannanam (Kottayam) and Koonammavu (Ernakulam)
16. Kuriakose Elias Chavara become Vice General for the Syro Malabar Catholic Church in ? – 1861
17. The system called “A school along with every church” was introduced by ? – Kuriakose Elias Chavara
18. A school along with every church” was introduced for ? – Give free education and knowledge for everyone
19. The First Indigenous Congregation of women ? – CMC(Congregation of the Mothers of Carmel)
20. The year which CMC started in ? – 1866
21. In which year Kuriakose Elias Chavara Died in ? – 3 January 1871(Koonammavu)
22. Kuriakose Elias Chavara’s Mortal kept in ? – St Joseph Monastery (Mannanam)
23. The book “Chavara Achan: Oru Rekha Cithram” written by ? – K.C.Chacko
24. Important books of Kuriakose Elias Chavara ? –
1. Athmanuthapam, 
2. Nalagamagale,
3. Anathasyayudae Rakthasakshyam, 
4. Nalla Appante Chavarukal, 
5. Dhyanasallapangal
25. Kuriakose Elias Chavara get the Status of Venerable in ? – 1984 (John Pole second)
26. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was Beatified on ? – 1986 February 8 (John Pole second)
27. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was Canonized in ? – 23 November 2014
28. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was Canonized by ? – Pope Francis(St Peters Square)
29. The year which Indian Postal Department published postage stamp in the memory of Kuriakose Elias Chavara ?- 20 December 1987
30. The book “Jeevitham thannae Sandesham : Vishudha Chavarayuda Jeevitham “written by ? – M.K.Sanu (biography of Kuriakose Elias Chavara)
31. The book “Akashadeepangal Sakshi” written by ? – John Antony
32. The book “A Pearl Truly Indian” written by ? – F.R.Thomas Panthaplackal
33. Who introduced PIDIYARI SYSTEM in Kerala ? –Kuriakose Elias Chavara

civil Renaissance

Vaikunda Swami

    • Ayya Vaikundar(Vaikunda Swami)(1809-1851), a great humanist and social thinker, lived in the Princely Kingdom of Travancore in the early decades of the 19th Century Kerala, is still remembered as the first well known social reformer in India who critiqued the caste discrimination and religious hierarchy and fought against the practice of untouchability.
    • Being the founder of ‘Samathwa Samajam’, the first socio reform movement in India (1836), Ayya Vaikundar is considered as the pioneer of such revolutionary movements in India.
    • Ayya Vaikundar called the rule of the British as ‘Ven Neechan’ and the rule of the king of Travancore as ‘The Neechan of Ananthapuri’.
    • He is the first to install a mirror for worshipping in South India.
    • He was the exponent of a new path of spiritual thoughts named ‘Ayya Vazhi’.
    • His exhortation ‘One caste, One religion, One Clan, One world, One God’’ is world famous.
    • No evidence of any picture or any of his human figure is kept to prove his visual identity. So that he still remains as in the form of absolute wisdom.
    • His theory and practice like ‘samathva samajam’ , ‘sama panthi bhojan’ , ‘thottu namam podunkal’ were much enough to cultivate a thought of equality and unity in Indian minds.
    • Ayya Vaikundar was born to the couple Ponnu Madan and Veyilal Amma in at Poovandanthope in the Kanyakumari District.
    • They initially named the child Mudisoodum Perumal, meaning “Lord Narayana with a crown”.
    • But due to the heavy protest of upper castes, the name had to change as ‘Muthukutty’ because at that time only upper castes were allowed to use the names of gods as their names.
    • Ayya Vaikunda Nather stayed at Swamithoppu and sent his disciples far and wide to carry his message to the masses.
    • He mainly had five disciples named with Pancha Pandavas as Mailady Sivathaanu (Dharma Cheedar), Kailasapuram Pandaaram ( Bheeman Cheedar), Pillayarkudiyirippu Arjunan (Arjunan Cheedar), Kulachal Subbayyan (Nakulan Cheedar ) , Thamarakkulam Harigopalan (Sahadevan Cheedar ).
    • He asked his five disciples to preach his principles and lead a holy life. He gave a Pathiram (guideline for a systematic life based on his principles ) to them and insisted to adhere it strictly.
    • People congregated at Swamithoppu to get his blessings and called ‘Ayya’. He used the holy mud – Namam – and the holy watermunthiri patham to cure the people of their illness and absolve them from sins.
    • He preached a new prayer which his followers called Pothippu. People came to him with their first product like the banana bunch, arecanut bunch, paddy, betel leaves and flowers.
    • Ayya Vaikundar advised his followers to practice Dharma. ‘Annadhanam’ was considered as the important form of Dharma.
    • Ayya Vaikundar’s preaching about temple worship was of great significance. He discouraged idol worship.
    • Ayya Vaikundar discouraged slaughtering of animals in the name of sacrifice. He discouraged keeping Hundis in temples and also giving Kanikka (offerings).
    • Ayya Vaikundar organized ‘Sama Panthi Bhojana’ in each and every place of worship in the name of “Annadanam’.
    • In 1836 Ayya Vaikundar organized a massive movement named ‘Samathva Samajam’. To propagate his concept of equality and dignity of all human beings this organization led a significant role.
    • During the ‘Chariot Festival’ of Sucheendram temple, Ayya Vaikundar captured the chariot thread (Kampa vadam) along with his followers and ready to pull the chariot along with the high caste.
    • He declared that the low castes including him have the right to pull the temple chariot. This act provoked the high caste authorities.
    • When the King, Swathi Thirunal, was visiting a nearby place, they complained to him that Vaikundar was deceiving the masses in the name of God. As they had full influence over the King and the State, they convinced the King to arrest Vaikundar. The King believed the words of the high caste chieftains and consequently sent a troop to arrest Ayya Vaikundar.
    • The troop arrested Ayya Vaikundar from Swamithoppu.
    • Ayya was brought before the King.The King ordered to take Ayya Vaikundar to Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of Travancore.
    • At Thiruvananthapuram, Ayya Vaikundar was punished with imprisonment for some months and put in the jail at Singarathoppu from November 1838.
    • King later ordered to release Ayya Vaikundar by signing an agreement forcing him to be only the leader of the people of his caste only. But Ayya Vaikundar refused to sign such an agreement.
    • He said that he has no caste or creed and was common to everybody. He also told the King that he would leave the jail only when he desires to do so.
    • On the 19th day of Tamil month Masi (March 3, 1839) Ayya Vaikundar decided to go back to Swamithoppu.
    • With all glories, his followers carried him back to Swamithoppu overnight and reached there on 20th day of Masi. This day is very auspicious to all his devotees and now every year this day is celebrated as Masi procession.
    • During that period, Nanchi nadu was the storehouse of the paddy in Travancore. These paddy fields were taxed heavily. At the same time, the land cultivators had to pay two types of taxes. One for land and other for trees. The majority of the landowners were high caste people. Even then Ayya Vaikundar entered into this issue. He told that the tax can be given to land only and organized hundreds of farmers of Nanchi Nadu and proceeded to Thiruvananthapuram. Addressing the farmers agitation at Thiruvananthapuram, Ayya Vaikundar asked the King to stop tree tax which was an additional one. He also pointed out that only if the farmer toil in the mud, the King can eat in the golden plate. This event may be the first agitation of farmers against a Kingdom in the history of India.
    • This part of the 19 th century witnessed cruelty against women. They were not allowed to cover their breasts and below the knee in Travancore.
    • A young Nadar lady came to market by wearing a blouse at the place called Kottaram near Kanya Kumari.
    • The high caste chieftains tore her blouse and captured her wedding chain with thaali. From this incident onwards, this market is known as Thaali Aruthaan Chanthai.
    • The men of Nadar community protested against this. The agitation spread over to different places. Several social workers intervened in this issue. The London Missionary Rev.Charles Mead went to the Court against this anti-human activity.
    • Straight fights between low caste and high caste men became common. The Govt. authorities stood on the side of high caste men.
    • They were not ready to consider the Court Verdict. So the Nadar men finally decided to break the hands of those who tear the blouses of their ladies. Strong fights went on.
    • Observing this severity of the agitation, the Govt. decided to permit Nadar women to wear the blouse.
    • But they were not permitted to put a shawl over the blouse. Ayya Vaikundar strongly opposed this and lead the agitation which was known as Mel Mundu Samaram.
    • As he foretold earlier Ayya Vaikundar attained Nirvana on a Monday mid-noon 2nd of June 1851.
    • After the period of Ayya, many of his prophecies came to reality. Thousands of people became his followers.
  • His spiritual thoughts turned into a new way of life – Ayya Vazhi.The people who criticized him while he was alive, had recognized his way of thought-that is Ayya Vazhi.

Important Questions on Vaikunda Swami

1. Born on ? – 12 March 1809
2. Born at ? – Swamithoppu (Tamilnadu)
3. Father? – Ponnu Madan
4. Mother? – Veyilal Amma
5. Wife ? – Thirumalammal
6. First name of Ayya Vaikundar ? – Mudichoodum Perumal (Means – Lord With a Crown) (Later changed – Muthukutty)
7. Ayya Vaikundar called the Travancore King as ? – Ananthapuri Devil
8. Ayya Vaikundar called the British Rule as ? – Rule of White Devil (Ven Neechan)
9. Ayya Vaikundar called the Travancore Rule as ? – Rule of Black Devil
10. Who raised voices against Devadasi system ? – Ayya Vaikundar
11. The main pathi of the Ayyavazhi Religion ? – Swamithoppu Pathi
12. Founder of Samathwa Samajam (1836) ? – Vaikunda Swamikal
13. Vaikunda Swamikal started meditation at ? – Poovandar Thoppu (Swami Thoppu)
14. The main disciple of Vaikunda Swamikal ? – Thycaud Ayya
15. Ayya Vaikundar was arrested and imprisoned at ? – Singarathoppu Jail (1838) (Travancore) (king – Swathi Thirunal) (Released on = 1839) 
16. Who organized Thuvayal Panthi Koottayma ? – Ayya Vaikundar
17. Aim of Thuvayal Panthi Koottayma ? – Bring a social change among Lower castes
18. Who organised Sama Panthi Bhojanam ? – Ayya Vaikundar
19. Who is known as ‘Sampoorna Devan’ ? – Ayya Vaikundar
20. The founder of the Spiritual thoughts Ayya Vazhi (The Path of the father) ? – Ayya Vaikundar
21. Name of the books shares the idea of Ayya Vazhi ? – Akhilathiruttu Ammanai and Arulnool
22. The Symbol of Ayya Vazhi ? – A Lotus Carrying a Flame
23. Who constructed the public well for people ? – Vaikunda Swamikal
24. The well-named Muthira Kinar or Swami Kinar is situated at ? – Swamithoppu
25. The first pathi was built in ? – Swamithoppu
26. Vaikunda Temple is located at ? – Swamithoppu (Kanyakumari)
27. Died on ? – 1851

civil Renaissance

A. K. Gopalan

  • Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan was a popular Indian Communist leader.
  • He was born in 1904 at Peralasseri in Kannur.
  • In 1927 he joined Indian National Congress and actively participated in Khadi Movement.
  • He was arrested for participation in Salt Satyagraha in 1930.
  • In 1931 he became the Volunteer Caption of Guruvayoor Sathyagraha which held in order to open Guryvayoor Temple to all Hindus.
  • In 1937 he led a hunger march from Kannur to Madras. 39 persons participated in this march.
  • In 1939 AKG joined Communist Party of Kerala.
  • AKG played an important role in the formation of Indian Coffee House.
  • First Indian Coffee House in Kerala was started at Thrissur on 8th March 1958.
  • AKG was the first leader of Opposition in Loksabha.
  • AKG was elected to Loksabha thrice from Kasargod Loksabha Constituency.
  • AKG died on 22 March 1977.
  • AKG day is celebrated on March 22 in every year.
  • His tomb is situated at Payyambalam Beach in Kannur.
  • The National Headquarters of CPI(M) in Kerala is also called as AKG Center.
  • Indian Postal Department published a commemorative postal stamp on AKG on 1st October 1990.
  • The Malayalam Film AKG was directed by Shaji.N.Karunan was based on the story of AKG.
  • The first communist leader who has his statue in Indian Parliament.

Important Question on Ayyathan Gopalan

1. Born in – 1904 October 1
2. Born at – Peralasseri (Kannur)
3. Full name – Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan
4. Father – Madhavi Amma
5. Mother – 2 November 1863
6. Wife – Susheela Gopalan
7. Who is known as The Crusader of the Down-Trodden – A.k.Gopalan
8. The year in which A.K.G Joined Indian National Congress – 1927
9. The year in which A.K.G arrested for participation in Salt Satyagraha – 1930
10. The Volunteer Captain of Guruvayoor Satyagraha – A.K.G
11. The leader of “Kshethra Satyagraha Yathra” (In connection with Guruvayur Satyagraha) – A.K.G
12. The leader of Thiruvannoor Cotton Mill Strike – A.K.G (1935)
13. The leader of Hunger March – A.K.Gopalan, In – 1936, From – Kannur to Madras
14. The year in which A.K.G become the Secretary of Kerala Communist Party – 1944
15. The founders of Calicut Labour Union – A.K.G and Krishnan Pillai
16. A.K.G was elected to Loksabha from – Kasaragod (1952)
17. The First Communist Opposition leader of the Loksabha – A.K.G
18. Who played a major role in the formation of Indian Coffee House – A.K.G
19. First Indian Coffee House in Kerala was started at – Thrissur (8 March 1958)
20. The Autobiography of A.K.G – Ente Jeevitha Kadha
21. Major Works – For Land, Work in Parliament, Around the World
22. Died on – 22 March 1977
23. A.K.G Day – March 22
24. A.K.G Tomb is situated at – Payyambalam Beach (Kannur)
25. A.K.G Memorial Library and Cultural Centre is situated at – Thalookkara Village (Malappuram)
26. The National Headquarters of CPI(M) – A.K.G Bhavan
27. A.K.G Bhavan is situated in – Delhi
28. The State Headquarters of CPI(M) in Kerala – A.K.G Center (Thiruvananthapuram)
29. A.K.G Statue is situated at – Kannur
30. The Malayalam film “AKG – Athijeevanathinte Kanal Vazhi” was directed by – Shaji.N.Karun
31. In the film “AKG – Athijeevanathinte Kanal Vazhi” the role of A.K.G was done by – P.Sreekumar
32. The year which Indian Postal Department published postage stamp in the memory of A.K.G – 1 October 1990

civil Renaissance

N. Kumaran Ashan

    • N. Kumaran Ashan born on 12 April 1873 in a merchant family belonging to the Ezhava community in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala.
    • He is also known as Mahakavi Kumaran Ashan, the prefix Mahakavi, awarded by Madras University in 1922, means “great poet” and the suffix Ashan means “scholar” or “teacher”.
    • He was also a philosopher, a social reformer and a disciple of Sree Narayana Guru
    • His father was Narayanan Perungudi, was well versed in Malayalam and Tamil and his mother was Kaali.
    • In 1917 Asan married Bhanumathiamma, the daughter of Thachakudy Kumaran – younger brother of Padmanabhan Palpu’s father. Bhanumathiamma, who was an active social worker, later remarried after Asan’s death and she died in 1975.
    • Asan inherited his taste for Kathakali and classical music. Kumaru trained in mathematics and Sanskrit for which he had a passion.
    • He got a job as a primary school teacher and an accountant to a wholesaler at the age of 14, he quit the job two years later to pursue higher studies in Sanskrit.
    • He undertook a studentship in poetry under Manamboor Govindan Asan.
    • He wished to learn Yoga and Tantra and worked as an apprentice in a Muruga temple at Vakkom.
  • He died aged 51 as a result of a boat accident in January 1924 while traveling to Kollam from a function in Alappuzha.

Important Question About Kumaran Ashan

1. Birthplace of Kumaranasan – Kayikkara (Thiruvananthapuram)
2. Born on – 12th April 1873
3. Kumaranasan died on – 1924 January 16
4. The only poet in Malayalam became Mahakavi without writing a mahakavyam – Kumaranasan
5. The title ‘Mahakavi’ was given to Kumaranasan by – Madras University
6. Who was  known as ‘Sneha Gayakan’ (Poet of love) – Kumaranasan
7. First Malayalam poet appeared on Indian postal stamps – Kumaranasan.
8. The first poet to became a member of Travancore Legislative assembly- Kumaranasan
9. Kumaranasan was one of the triumvirate poets of Kerala (the other two were Vallathol Narayana Menon and Ulloor S. Paraneswaralyer)
10. Kumaranasan undertook a studentship in poetry under – Manamboor Govindan Asan
11. The work of Kumaranasan written in the Vanchipattu Vruthum – Karuna
12. The plays written by Kumaranasan – Vichitravijayam, Mrityunjayam 
13. Veena poovu was published for the first time in – Mithavadi
14. Kumaranasan was honored by Prince of Wales in – 1922
15. The character ‘Mathangi’ is in which poem of Kumaranasan – Chandalabhikshuki
16. “Change the rules, if not, you will be changed by them ‘ was the warning given by – Kumaranasan
17. The childhood name of Kumaranasan – Kumaru
18. The translation of ‘Light of Asia’ written  by Kumaranasan – Sribuddha Charitham
19.1First notable work of Kumaranasan – Veena Poovu
20. The spot where Asan met with premature death was later named – Kumarakoti

civil Renaissance

C V Kunhiraman

    • C V Kunhiraman was Born in 1871, Mayyanad, Kerala.
    • He was the son of Velayudhan and Kunhichali.
    • He stopped his schooling at the eighth standard, He started a school for low caste Hindus at Vellamanal, Mayyanad, Quilon.
    • C V Kunhiraman was a man of letters, social reformer, founder of Kerala Kaumudi, journalist, and leader.
    • He was a follower of Sree Narayana Guru.
    • Kunhiraman opened his journalistic career in Sujananadini, published by Paravoor Kesavanasan from Paravoor, Kollam.
    • C V Kunjuraman used the pen name ‘Simhalan
    • An activist in the SNDP Yogam, he was elected its general secretary in 1928 and 1931.
    • Valmiki Ramayanam was his first work to come out in print, in 1901.
    • In 1911 at Mayyanad CV launched Kerala Kaumudi as a weekly newspaper and He also was the founder editor of Malayalarajyam.
    • Kerala Kaumudi had grown over the years as one of the most influential dailies in Malayalam, that has raised its voice against injustice on all fronts. Its sharp criticism, daring opinions, and powerful language created a trend in Travancore.
    • Kunhiraman was also the editor of Malayalarajyam, Navajeevan, Kathamalika, Yukthivadi, Navasakthi, and Vivekodayam
    • He had been on the editorial board of Malayala Rajyam, Navajeevan, Navasakthi, Malayala Manorama, Bhashaposhini, Kathamalika, Vivekodayam, and Yuktivadi.
    • C.V. has been hailed for his role behind the historic Temple Entry Proclamation (1936).
civil Renaissance

Pandit Karuppan

    • K.P. Karuppan was born on 24 May 1885, at Cheranelloor, near Ernakulam, Kerala.
    • His full name was Kandathiparambil Paapu Karuppan.
    • He was born to Paapu and Kochu Pennu and the family was known for its skills in toxicology and for treating snakebite victims.
    • The Malayalam meaning of Karuppan is “person of black colour,” but, ironically, Karuppan had a very fair complexion.
    • His childhood name was Sankaran, the name Karuppan was given to him by a Tamil Gosai who was a family friend. The name Karuppan was suggested because the meaning of Karuppan is “a learned person” in Tamil.
    • Pandit Karuppan was a poet, dramatist, and social reformer emerged from Ernakulam of Cochin State as a relentless crusader against untouchability and social evils.
    • He was called the “Lincoln” of Kerala” for steering socio-economically and educationally backward communities to the forefront.
    • As the first human rights activist of the Cochin State, he campaigned for the rights of lower-caste people, who at that time were not even permitted to enter Ernakulam.
    • His first poem was Sthothramandaaram, he wrote Lankamardanam at the age of 12 with slokas styled in Shardoolavikreeditham.
    • Karuppan studied Sanskrit Kavyas under Mangalappillil Krishnan Asan of Cherai and returned to Cheranelloor to study with Annamanada Rama Pothuval. The most significant period of his education was at Kodungalloor. The Kodungallur Kovilakam was a place of learning, due to the resident luminaries.
    • Karuppan’s famous work Jathikummi, which criticised the prevailing caste system, was written in 1904 during the period of his study at Kodungallur Kovilakam and it became popular among the poor, he was then a 19-year-old student.
    • He started his teaching career at Caste Girls’ High School at Ernakulam in 1912, In August 1925, he was nominated as a member of the Cochin Legislative Council
  • Pandit Karuppan died of pleurisy on 23 March 1938 at the age of 53

Important Question on Pandit Karuppan

1. Full name of K.P.Karuppan: Kandathu Parambil Pappu Karuppan
2. Original name of Pandit Karuppan: Sankaran
3. Born on: 24 may 1885
4. Born at: Cheranelloor (Ernakulam)
5. Father’s name: Pappu
6. Mother’s name: Kochupennu
7. Wife’s name: Kunhamma
8. Daughter’s name: Parvathy
9. The house was Pandit Karuppan lived in: Sahitya Kudeeram (Ernakulam)
10. Pandit Karuppan belongs to which community: Dheevara (Fisherman)
11. The first guru of Karuppan: Azheekal Velu Vaidyan
12. Who is the leader of Kayal Sammelanam: Pandit Karuppan
13. Kayal Sammelanam was organised in: 14 February 1914
14. Kayal Sammelanam conducted on: Kochi Kayal
15. The year which Pandit Karuppan was appointed as the member of Cochin Legislative Assembly: 1925
16. Major works of Pandit Karuppan

  • Lankamardanam
  • Jathikkummi
  • Balakalesham
  • Sree Budhaa
  • Panchavadi
  • Araya Prasasthi
  • Kairalee Kouthukam
  • Kavyapedakam
  • Kaliyamardanam
  • Acharabhooshanam
  • Bhaasha Bhaimee Parinayam
  • Dheevara Tharuniyuda Vilapam
  • Udyanavirunnu
  • Mahasamadhi
  • Mangalamala
  • Chithralekha
  • Edward Vijayam
  • Soudamini
  • Sangeetha Naishadham
  • Sakunthalam Vanchipattu
  • Dhruvacharitham
  • Rajaraja Parvam
  • Sthothramandaram

17. The first poem of Pandit karuppan: Sthothramandaram
18. The first book in Malayalam literature questioning the cast system and untouchability: Jathikummi
19. The book written by Pandit karuppan to generate awareness against Superstitions: Acharabhooshanam
20. The first Sabha was founded by Pandit Karuppan: Kalyanadayini Sabha, Situated in- Anapuzha (Kodungalloor)
21. Founder of Prabodha ChandrodayaSabha: Pandit Karuppan, Situated in – North paravoor
22. Founder of Sanmarga Pradeepa Sabha : Pandit Karuppan, Situated in – Kumbalam
23. Founder of Vala Samudaya Parishkarini Sabha: Pandit Karuppan, Situated in – Thevara
24. Founder of Araya Samajam: Pandit Karuppan
25. Founder of Cochin Pulaya Maha Sabha: Pandit karuppan and K.P.Vellon
26. Founder of Araya Vamsha Dharani Sabha: Pandit Karuppan, Situated in – Engandiyoor
27. Founder of Jnanodayam Sabha: Pandit Karuppan, Situated in – Eda Kochi
28. Who is known as “Lincoln of Kerala”: Pandit K.P.karuppan
29. The title kavithilakan (Great Poet) was given to Pandit karuppan by: Maharaja of Cochin
30. The title Sahitya Nipuna was given to Pandit karuppan by: Maharaja of Cochin
31. The title Vidwan was given to Pandit karuppan by: Kerala Varma Valiyakoi Thampuran
32. Pandit K.P.Karuppan died on : 23 March 1938 (Pleurisy disease)
33. Pandit Karuppan monument is situated at : Cheranelloor
34. Pandit karuppan Smaraka Grammena Vayanasala(1953)Situated in : Cheranelloor
35. Founder of Pandit karuppan Smaraka Grammena Vayanasala : A.K.Velappan
36. The Pandit karuppan prize Instituted by : Pandit karuppan Vichara Vedic, Prize money = 25000/-
37. The first winner of Pandit Karuppan prize : Sugathakumari(2013)
38. Winner of Pandit karuppan prize 2014 : Matha Amrithanandamayi
39. Winner of Pandit karuppan prize 2015: Swami Chidananda Puri
40. The book Pandit Karuppan Jeevithavum Porattavum written by: Gopinath panangad
41. The book Pandit Karuppan (Malayalam) written by: Rajesh K Erumeli

civil Renaissance

Mannathu Padmanabhan Pillai

  • Mannathu Padmanabhan was a social reformer and a freedom fighter from the State of Kerala.
  • He is recognised as the founder of the Nair Service Society.
  • Mannathu Padmanabhan was born in Perunna village in Changanacherry on 2 January 1878.
  • Father: Eswaran Namboothiri of Nilavana Illam, Mother: Mannathu Parvathy Amma
  • In 1893 Padmanabhan began his career as a teacher in a Government primary school.
  • From 1905 he changed his profession and started practising law.
  • In 1914 he established the Nair Service Society.
  • His main ambition was to uplift the status of the Nair community.
  • From 1915 he became full-time secretary of the Nair Service Society.
  • In 1924 he took part in the Vaikom Satyagraha.
  • On November 1, 1924 to support Vaikom Satyagraha, Savarna procession was set out from Vaikom to Trivandrum under the leadership of Mannathu Padmanabhan.
  • In 1947 he became a member of the Indian National Congress.
  • In 1949 Padmanabhan became a member of the Travancore Legislative Assembly.
  • He was honoured with the title Bharata Kesari by the President of India.
  • Sardar K M Panicker called him ‘Madan Mohan Malavya of Kerala’.
  • Mannathu Padmanabhan was the person related to Muthukulam speech of 1947
  • He also received Padma Bhushan in 1966.
  • He died on February 25, 1970 at the age of 93.
  • Mannam memorial is located at NSS Headquarters Changanacherry.
  • ‘Reminiscences of my life’ is the English translation of the autobiography of Mannathu Padmanabhan.

Important Questions on Mannathu Padmanabhan Pillai

1. Mannathu Padmanabhan was born on : 2nd January 1878
2. The birthplace of Mannathu Padmanabhan: Perunna (Kottayam) 
3. Father name ? : Eeshwaran Namboothiri 
4. Mother name ? : Parvathiamma 
5. Wife name ? : Thottakadu Madhaviamma
6. NSS was formed in : 31 October 1914
7. The founder of NSS : Mannath Padmanabhan
8. The Headquarters of NSS is situated at : Perunna (Kottayam)
9. NSS was formed on the model of : Servants of India Society(Gopala Krishna Gokhale) 
10. NSS was earlier named as : Nair Brithyajana Sangam 
11. The mouthpiece of NSS : Service
12. Service started its edition from : Karukachal (Kottayam)
13. The year which NSS was registered under Indian Companies Act : 1925
14. The name Nair Brithyajana Sangam was suggested by : Kappana Kannan Menon 
15. The first President of NSS : K.Kelappan
16. The first Secretary of NSS : Mannath Padmanabhan
17. The first treasury of NSS : Panagattu Kesavapaniker 
18. Nair Brithyajana Sangam took the name NSS in : 11 July 1915
19. The name NSS was suggested by : K.Paramupillai 
20. The first school of NSS started in : Karukachal ( Kottayam) 
21. The first principal of Karukachal NSS School : K.Kelappan
22. The first College of NSS started in : Perunna (Kottayam) 
23. The first Karayoga of NSS started in : Thattayil (Pathanamthitta) 
24. The year in which All Kerala Nair Meeting was started : 1916
25. The song “Akhilandamandalam” is written by : Panthallam K.P.RamanPillai 
26. Mannath Padmanabhan was nominated to Sree Moolam Prajasabha in : 1921
27. Savarna Jadha was led by : Mannath Padmanabhan
28. Savarna Jadha conducted from : Vaikom to Trivandrum 
29. Savarna Jadha was organised as a part of : Vaikkom agitation 
30. Vaikom Memorial was submitted to : Rani Lakshmi Bhai
31. The President of Guruvayoor Sathyagraham Committee : Mannath Padmanabhan
32. The Secretary of Guruvayoor Sathyagraham Committee : K.Kelappan
33. Mannath Padmanabhan become INC member in : 1947
34. The famous “Muthukulam Speech” related to : Mannath Padmanabhan (1947)
35. Mannath Padmanabhan become a member of Travancore Legislative Assembly in : 1949
36. The first President of Travancore Devasaom Board : Mannath Padmanabhan
37. Vimochana Samaram(Liberation Struggle) was in the year : 1959
38. Who lead the Jeevasikha Yatra as a part of Vimochana Samaram : Mannath Padmanabhan
39. Jeevasikha Yatra conducted from : Angamali to Thiruvananthapuram 
40. The causes of Vimochana Samaram(Liberation Struggle) : The introduction of an education bill 
41. The leader of Vimochana Samaram(Liberation Struggle) : Mannath Padmanabhan
42. The name Vimochana Samaram suggested by : Panampalli Govinda Menon
43. The movement caused the dismissal of the first Communist Government (31 July 1959) ?: Vimochana Samaram(Liberation Struggle)
44. The party formed by Mannath Padmanabhan and R.Shankar was ?: Democratic Congress Party
45. The association founded by Mannath Padmanabhan with the help of R.Shankar ?:Hindu Mahamandalam
46. Who is known as “Bharath Kesari” : Mannath Padmanabhan
47. Who got the degree of “Bharath Kesari” from the Indian President : Mannath Padmanabhan (1959)
48. Mannath Padmanabhan got Padma Bhushan in : 1966
49. Mannath Padmanabhan Died on : 25th February 1970
50. Where is Mannath Samadhi situated : Perunna (Kottayam) 
51. Who is known as Madhan Mohan Malavya of Kerala : Mannath Padmanabhan
52. Who gave the title of Madhan Mohan Malavya of Kerala : Sardar K.M.Paniker
53. The founder of Nair Samajam : Mannath Padmanabhan
54. The founder of Kerala Nair Samajam : C.Krishna Pillai
55. The party started by NSS : National Democratic Party
56. The Present General Secretary of NSS : G. Sukumaran Nair 
57. The Autobiography of Mannath Padmanabhan : Ente Jeevitha Smaranakal
58. The novel written by Mannath Padmanabhan ?: Snehalatha
59. Which year Kerala Government declared Mannam Jayanti as public holiday : 2014
60. Mannam Jayanti is celebrated on : 2nd January
61. Njangaluda F.M.S Yatra was the work of ?: Mannath Padmanabhan
62. he only social reformer to speech in Malayalam on British Broad Casting Corporation(BBC): Mannath Padmanabhan
63. Mannam Sugar Mills is situated at : Panthallam (Pathanamthitta)
64. The year which Indian Postal Department published postal stamp of : 1989
65. The first women member of Kochi legislative assembly ?: Thottakadu Madhaviamma